1. Respiratory systems probably first appear in annelid worms
2.Insects, chordata, ostichthyes, nematodes, flatworms, annelid worms ,echinoderms, jellyfish, and mollusca have a digestive system
3. Corals are in the Class Anthozoa of the Phylum Cnidaria
4. Mitosis produces 4 haploid sperm or 1 haploid egg in most animals
5. Bacteria have ribosomes as only-intracellular organelles, although one bacterium has been found with a nucleus
6. Xylem, which is dead tissue conducts water and minerals upwards in plants and phloem, which is living tissue, conducts nutrients downward from leaves
7. Endosymbiosis of a nonphotosynthetic prokaryote with another prokaryote or early eukaryote may have given rise to the protozoa about 2 billion years ago
8. Porifera have a tissue grade of organization
.9 Behavioral . temporal, and mechanical isolating mechanisms are examples of allopatric speciation
10 Animal development is similar for each vertebrate phylum in the earliest stages.
11. Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny is the theory of Ernst Haekel but is not completely true, mainly for the earlier stages of development
12. Bryophytes like mosses and liverworts are tied to the water with flagellated sperm, unlike most other plants that lack flagella.
13. Seeds are mature ovules and fruits are mature ovaries
14 The peppered moth is an example of directional natural selection
15. Transpiration through the stomata of leaves and cohesion of water molecules can move water up over 400 feet in the air in trees
16. Lilies. palms and grasses have petals in groups of 3 and branching leaf veiation
17. The founder effect deceases gene diversity in the new population verses the old
18. Petunias, maples , oaks, and marigolds have petals in groups of 4-5 and branching leaf veination and radicle (tap) roots.
19 Pollen lands on the stigma and the pollen tube tunnels into the style, followed by three nuceli.
20 Double fertilization is the rule for angiosperms and produces the triploid endosperm
21. Anemones and clown fish, tapeworms and cleaning stations are examples of mutualism
22. An animal species is a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring
23. The Carboniferous period was the age of coal, giant amphibians, giant insects giant club moss and horsetails and the atmosphere had an oxygen content of about 3O% and occurred about 300 million years ago
24. Ecology is the study of the interactions of organisms with each other and the abiotic environment and is a relatively new science
25 Populations evolve ,individuals do not.
26. Two cambium layers are usually present in dicots, some have three, but are absent in monocots.
27 King kudzu was intentionally a introduced species that took over the south and periwinkles were accidently introduced and took over the rocky coast
28. Sieve tube elements and companion cells are part of phloem which is alive
29 Darwin was greatly influence by Charles Lyell’s theory of uniformitarianism and Mathus’ views on catastrophism
30. Eutrophication of bodies of water in the past was caused by carbonates in detergents-since phosphorous and is often the limiting nutrient in an aquatic environment
31 Xylem is found inside the phloem in trunks of trees.
32. Mammals gained dominance as the result of an adaptive radiation around 65 million years ago thanks probably to a meteor thus the beginning of the Cenozoic era.
33 Feathered dinosaurs may have given rise to the earliest birds
34. Stabilizing selection is the result of changing habitats in a given geographical area and can lead to differences in body sizes of populations of the same species.
35. Some fungi like Armillaria may be the largest organism on earth if we exclude clonal trees
36. The diatoms may be responsible for most of the world’s oil and the Nobel prize.
37 There are about 1 million described species of organisms today, most of which are insects, with new ones being discovered constantly, but the actual number could be in the billions or even trillions if we knew all the bacteria and archea on the planet.
38. There are a little over 5,000 species of known mammals, which is about half of the known bird species.
39 Thousands of repressor proteins help regulate translation in most organisms
40 Stomata in CAM plants are usually closed during night and open during the day
41 Fungi affect man as antibiotics, diseases, food, research tools and major decomposers of animal and plant material and mycorhizzae
42, Lamark’s concept of the inheritance of acquired traits has been show not to be totally true for genes , although not completely wrong- in fact may be a major player in health and disease-if we include epigenesis.
43 Prokaryotes are simple cells without a nucleus that evolved over 3.5 billion years ago and are represented today by the bacteria and the archea
44. Leeches are predaceous or blood –sucking segmented aninals in the phylum Annelida, class oligochaeta
45. The apicomlexa contain the single greatest microbial killer of mankind-the cause of malaria
46. Some protozoa , like Trypansoma, gambiense, Entameba histolytica, Balantidium coli, Taenia solium, and Giardia are parasites of man
47 The Cambrian period is the age of Invertebrates and the Mesozoic the age of amphibians
48. Xylem and Phloem are conductive tissues in the tracheophytes, not found in lower plants like liverworts and mosses
49. Dinosaurs became extinct at the end of the Carboniferous period, possibly do to cataclysmic event, such as a comet or large meteor hitting earth about 300 million years ago.
50 The first muscles probably appear in the flatworms
51. Carbon dioxide is usually taken into leaves by stomata from the atmosphere , while water and oxygen ususally leave
52. Darwin’s finches are an example of adaptation to different niches and thus natural selection.
53. The rain forests represent the most species-diverse biome known today on earth, although the oceans are probably much more diverse , especially if we include bacteria and viruses
54. In the Bryophytes the sporophyte generation is dominant, while in trees the gametophyte is dominant
55. Gene flow, non-random mating, natural selection and mutation would all alter the Hardy Weinburg formula
56. Over 50,000 species have been introduced into US, including , the earth worm-Lumbricus terestris, starlings , honey bees ,Japanese beetles , water hyacinths, gypsy moths and purple loosestrife
57. Radiolarians and foraminiferans are fungi that formed extensive deposits in the ocean that can be seen today in some place, like the white cliffs of Dover.
58. The green house effect is partially the result of carbon dioxide and methane released on the earth by both humans and nature and increases as the average temperature of the earth rises and is counteracted by increases in albedo caused by particulate material
59, Methane is a green house gas that is about 25X more effective than carbon dioxide and huge amounts exist in the ocean
60 Lyell, Fitzroy, Maltus, Lamarck ,Henslow, Wallace, Mendel all influenced Darwin in some way.
61 Most invertebrate phyla, were present in the Cambrian period over 500 million years ago
62 Similar coloration of poisonous frogs is an example of Batesian mimicry
63. Independent assortment is one reason for the huge amount variability of humans about 8 million different kinds of egg and sperm
64 Crossing over occurs in prophase/metaphase II of meiosis
65 Aa in complete dominance would be called a heterozygous genotype and would have the same phenotypes as the homozygous recessive
66. In complete dominance AA would be a different phenotype from Aa
67. In a cross between Aa and Aa in complete dominance would give all the same phenotype and genotype
68. Homologous chromosomes line up randomly in metaphase II of meiosis
69. There are more than 64 trillion possible genotypes every time a human sperm fertilizes and egg thanks to independent assortment, crossing over and random fertilization.
70. Angiosperms arose about 325 million years ago and are the dominant plants today , and although there is some controversy over the number of species, there are probably over 300,000 legitimate species with some estimates as high as 400,000
71. The last ice age ended about 10-12,000 years ago in the Pleistocene era.
72 The Chaparral is characterized by shrubs, scrub oaks etc and can be found in parts of California
73. About 16 minerals are essential to plants-fewer than in humans, however the exact number is not know.
74 Plants cells are totipotent- one cell can be induced to become a whole plant
75. Plants need iron for photosynthesis
76. Rachel Carson is one of the most important women in the history and made the world aware of the environment and the danger of man’s ignorance and greed, despite attempts by the purveyors of pollution to paint her in a different light for their selfish and dangerous motives.
77 The Veldt, prairie , Serengeti plains and steppes are examples of biomes where grasses are the dominant plants
78 A meadow would be an example of an ecosystem as well as a habitat
79 A pond, meadow , lake and field would be an examples of biomes
80 The dandelion, kudzu, starling , periwinkle, honey bee, turkey, and common earthworm are examples of introduced species in the USA.


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A. The following best describes a dicot
1. Angiosperm with woody stem, petals arranged in groups of 3
2. Angiosperm with petals arranged in groups of 4-5 and fibrous roots
3. Angiosperm with petals arranged in groups of 3, and have fibrous roots
4. 1 and 2

B. The following are monocots
1. Lilies , orchids and palm trees
2. Ferns and maple trees
3. Corn, wheat and rye
4. 1 and 3

C. The best example of a terrestrial biome is
1 Deserts
2 My backyard
3.A veldt
4 tropical .rainforests

D. The best example of an aquatic ecosystem is
1. oceans
2. pond
3. grass lands
4. veldt

E. The following is true about mitosis
1. Increases diversity
2. Resists diversity
3. produces haploid cells
4 2 and 3

F. A correct statement about mycorhizzae would be
1. Possibly allowed the colonization of land by early plants
2. Mutualistic fungi that increase root surface area
3 toad stool
4.1 and 2 of the above

G. The following are plant hormones
1. Auxins and gibberellins
2. abscissic acid and jasmonates
3. ethylene
4. All of the above

H. The following best describes viruses
1. Are alive
2. simple particles containing genetic material and a protein coat
3. simple cells with only ribosomes as organelles and great reproductive potential
4 1 and 3

I. The following are prokaryotes
1. Bacillus spp.
2. Biston betularia
3. All protozoa
4. 2 and 3

J. Long day plants flower
1. Summer only
2. Fall
3. Summer and Fall
4. Late summer fall or winter

K. Guard cells change shape by
1 .Pumping out Na
2. Pumping out Ca
3. swelling with water
4. Pumping out water

L. Man’s impact on the environment ,at the present, can be best described as
1. Careless and ignorant and arrogant
2. Highly political and money influenced
3. Mostly disruptive and in some cases devastating
4.All of the above

M. Gymnosperms can be best described
1. Most numerous and recently evolved plants with true seeds and endosperm
2. Flowering plants with 5 petal symmetry , fibrous roots, parallel veination
3. Two seed leaves, diverse flowering plants with branching veination of leaves
4 Naked seed plants that dominated the early Mesozoic era

N. Hominims include
1. Australopithecus
2. Homo habilis
3. mandrils
4. 1 and 2

O. The complex relationships between plants and insects can best be described as
1. Parallel evolution
2. Coevolution
3. Directional evolution
4 The intelligence of nature

P. The following would qualify as primary producers
1. Almost all plants
2. Armillaria
3. Quercus
4 1 and 3

Q. the removal of a top predator as a shark from an ecosystem could cause
1 Increase in all other organisms
2. The second level predator to thrive at expense of their prey
3. Decrease in most species
4. 1 and 2

R. An introduced species in the past has usually resulted in the following scenario
1. Could be silent-maybe dies off
2. Multiplies rapidly due to lack of predators
3. Supplants many species
4. All of the above

S. Reasons to deny the role of man in the environment would be
1. Money
2. Politics, money , greed, ignorance, selfishness, staus quo, power, superiority complex, the old boy net work
3. Money
4. All of the above

T. the following are not prezygotic isolating mechanisms
1. temporal
2. behavioral
3. inviability of embryo
4. 1 and 2

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