i just need each question answered sentence or two max for each question.
1. Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic disease, in which a gene has a mutation.
a. What is the effect on the CF protein and why? CF occurs because of mutations in the gene that makes a protein called CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator). A person with CF produces abnormal CFTR protein — or no CFTR protein at all, which causes the body to make thick, sticky mucus instead of the thin, watery kind
b. The CF protein is an ion transporter, important for facilitated diffusion of Cl- ions out of the cell. Where in/on the cell is this located? Can Cl- ions move out of the cell without this protein? Why/why not? (your answer should include something about polar molecules).
c. Based on the answer to (b) above, you would expect the osmotic gradient of these cells to change. What happens to osmosis and why?
d. This leads to very thick mucus in the patient’s lungs. Why?
2. One function of membrane proteins is to function as receptors for extra cellular signals. This function will be highly relevant to many topics in A&P I and II. For example, opioid receptors function in the brain. Referencing the analogy of the “lock and key”, explain the following:
a. What natural substances bind opioid receptors in a normal situation? What is the effect of this on the brain?
b. What happens when heroin binds these opiod receptors in the brain? How is this different than the “normal ligand” for these receptors?
c. What is the effect of Narcan on binding of heroin to opiod receptors? Explain how this makes it possible for Narcan to reverse a heroin overdose.
3. The cell cycle must be tightly regulated and must occur correctly. When problems occur in the cell cycle, abnormal growth can occur. Mutations in specific genes can cause problems in proteins important for cell cycle regulation. BRCA-1 was the first “breast cancer” gene found by researchers and is important for allowing “DNA repair” after replication.
a. In which phase of the cell cycle is BRCA-1 important? Explain your answer.
b. If one copy of the BRCA-1 gene is mutated, why would a patient have an increased risk of cancer?
c. Is BRCA-1 considered a tumor suppressor gene or a proto-oncogene? Explain your answer.
d. Patients with a BRCA-1 mutation may elect to have a double mastectomy and/or a hysterectomy even if there is no evidence of BRCA related cancer in their body. If you had a patient with a BRCA-1 mutation, would you counsel them to have a surgery such as this? Support your answer.
4. Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria occurs when the protein important for stabilizing the nuclear membrane is defective.
a. What do you think would happen to these cells? Why?
b. What problem does the patient have and why?
c. Is this disease passed down directly from parent to child? Support your answer.
This site is worth looking at to help you answer this question. http://www.progeriaresearch.org/about_progeria/
Plagiarism Free Papers
All our papers are original and written from scratch. We will email you a plagiarism report alongside your completed paper once done.
All papers are submitted ahead of time. We do this to allow you time to point out any area you would need revision on, and help you for free.
A title page preceeds all your paper content. Here, you put all your personal information and this we give out for free.
Without a reference/bibliography page, any academic paper is incomplete and doesnt qualify for grading. We also offer this for free.
Originality & Security
At Homework Sharks, we take confidentiality seriously and all your personal information is stored safely and do not share it with third parties for any reasons whatsoever. Our work is original and we send plagiarism reports alongside every paper.
24/7 Customer Support
Our agents are online 24/7. Feel free to contact us through email or talk to our live agents.
Try it now!
How it works?
Follow these simple steps to get your paper done
Place your order
Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.
Proceed with the payment
Choose the payment system that suits you most.
Receive the final file
Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.
We work around the clock to see best customer experience.
Our prces are pocket friendly and you can do partial payments. When that is not enough, we have a free enquiry service.
Admission help & Client-Writer Contact
When you need to elaborate something further to your writer, we provide that button.
We take deadlines seriously and our papers are submitted ahead of time. We are happy to assist you in case of any adjustments needed.
Your feedback, good or bad is of great concern to us and we take it very seriously. We are, therefore, constantly adjusting our policies to ensure best customer/writer experience.