argumentative essay (persuasive).
Structure of 5-Paragraph Essay:
Body Paragraphs (within 5-paragraph essays):
Topic within topic sentence
Main idea of body paragraph
Supports main theme or idea of entire essay
5-8 Supporting Sentences
Provide examples or explanations of topic
Order within a 5-Paragraph Essay:
Introduction (third thing written)
Thesis statement (contains theme, controlling idea, or main idea)
Preview of body paragraph topics
Body Paragraphs (first thing written)
Main information of essay
Conclusion (second thing written)
Summary of main points
Tie-in to introduction (hook or background)
Recommendation, personal opinion, or point of view
To make a strong argumentative essay
You need strong, logical reasons to support your argument and persuade readers to agree with your opinion.
The writer includes a counter-argument, a refutation, and a concession.
A counterargument is a viewpoint that opposes your main argument. Counterarguments are part of good persuasive writing and speaking strategy because they show that you’ve considered other points of view. They also set up the chance to refute the opposition and show why your position is the right one to have.
Refutation is the part of an essay that disproves the opposing arguments. It is always necessary in a persuasive paper to refute or answer those arguments. A good method for formulating your refutation is to put yourself in the place of your readers, imagining what their objections might be.
A concession is something yielded to an opponent during an argument, such as a point or a fact. Concessions often occur during formal arguments and counterarguments, such as in debates or academic writing. A writer or debater may agree with one aspect of his or her opponent’s ideas and yet disagree with the rest.
Goal of the argumentative essay
To convince the reader of the writer’s point of view or express an opinion about a controversial issue.
Used to convey which type of essay you are writing
Help a reader understand the intent of the writer
Strengthens essay by focusing content
Contrast Essay—differences, dissimilar, unlike, contrasting
Compare Essay—similar, common, share, both
Cause Essay—grounds, intention, motive, promote, reason
Effect Essay—affect, consequence, impact, implication, outcome, result
Argumentative (Persuasive) Essay–argue, convince, defend, oppose, refute
Used to indicate additional information
Clarify relationship between ideas
Used to introduced effect clauses—therefore, as a result, and consequently
Used in argumentative essays—furthermore, in addition, and moreover
Common verbs and one phrase used to introduce quotations (paraphrased work)
Mention, claim, say, state, suggest, continue, believe, advise, explain, and according to
Miscellaneous Grammatical Information
A complete sentence contains a subject, verb, and a complete thought (and is an independent or main clause).
Subordinating conjunctions are used with dependent clauses.
Two main clauses can be connected with a comma and a coordinating conjunction.
You use a semicolon between two main clauses that are very close in meaning.
A sentence fragment is an error because it cannot stand by itself; it is a dependent clause.
A dependent clause is similar to an independent clause by having a subject and verb; it is different by not having a complete thought.
Meanings of some signal words:
Argue—(v.) to give reasons or cite evidence in support of an idea, action, or theory with the aim of persuading others
Convince—(v.) to succeed in making someone believe something or take action
Defend—(v.) to support a person or issue that is being criticized
Oppose—(v.) to disagree with someone’s beliefs, actions, or plans, and to try to change or stop them
Refute—(v.) to prove that something is wrong
Opinion—(n.) a view or judgment formed about something
Position—(n.) a person’s particular point of view or attitude toward something
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