The mission is to find to answers to a Unit 1 & 2 study guide and writing them in the form of (for example) Unit 1: 1A 2D 3C etc. Unit 2: 1C 2D 3A etc.
1&2 Units for PSY150
Unit 1 Study Guide
1. The increase in life expectancy since 1900 is due mostly to ______.
a. decreases chronic diseases
b. the conquest of influenza
d. none of the above
2. Based on the real-world profile of Angela Bryan, how should health psychologists evaluate the effectiveness of their interventions in changing health behaviors?
a. anecdotal feedback from patients they have treated
b. patients’ responses to self-reporting questionnaires
c. applying valid and reliable research methodologies
d. interdisciplinary partners’ views of patient progress
3. Cade attributes catching a “cold” to not getting enough sleep and feelings of distress. Thus, Cade has an implicit acceptance of the ______ model of health.
4. Chronic illnesses in the U.S. are responsible for the majority of health care spending. Which category accounts for the largest proportion of money spent?
a. overall health care spending
b. prescriptions that are written
c. hospitalizations for patients
d. patients’ visiting physicians
5. According to Table 1.1 of your text, which of the following ethnic groups has the MOST statistical justification for concern about dying from unintentional injuries?
a. European Americans
b. Hispanic Americans
c. African Americans
d. Asian Americans
Unit 1 Examination
6. For which of the following ethnic groups is kidney disease a more common cause of death than for the others?
a. African Americans
b. European Americans
c. Hispanic Americans
d. Asian Americans
7. One of the challenges of conducting health research is that it is impossible, and unethical, to manipulate certain variables, such as sexual behaviors or smoking. The research design that examines differences between groups without manipulating these groups is ______.
b. ex post facto
c. random assignment
8. A research study found a direct, consistent association between late bedtime and childhood obesity. This is known as a _______ relationship.
b. dose-response c. positive
9. Patient A was raised to view medical treatments as most effective; Patient B was raised to believe in faith healing and avoid medical treatments. If both patients are given a placebo, what is MOST likely?
a. the strength of their respective placebo responses should not be affected by the differences in what they believe
b. each will have a stronger response to a placebo that seems most similar to their respective preferred treatments
c. each will have a stronger response to a placebo that seems most different from the treatments that each one prefers
d. none of the above
10. For which of the following symptoms would you expect a placebo to be MOST ineffective?
11. Research has found that obesity is related to high blood pressure. This finding means that ______.
a. obesity is a risk factor for high blood pressure
b. obesity is an independent risk factor for high blood pressure
c. most overweight people die of high blood pressure
d. thin people are protected against high blood pressure
12. Which of the following is characteristic of a randomized controlled trial?
a. Researchers randomly assign participants to either a study group or a control group.
b. It avoids the problem of self-selection.
c. Researchers must control variables other than those of primary interest.
d. All of the above.
13. According to David Mechanic, which of the following symptom characteristics is LEAST likely
to determine people’s response to illness?
a. cost of treatment and hospitalization
b. perceived severity of the illness
c. visibility of the symptoms
d. the extent to which the symptoms interfere with normal daily functioning
14. Alexander Segall proposed that the sick role includes three rights or privileges and three duties or responsibilities. Which of these factors is a duty or responsibility of people who have adopted the sick role behavior?
a. use a range of health care resources
b. be exempt from normal duties
c. make decisions concerning health-related issues
d. become dependent on others for assistance
15. Medical errors do cause deaths in the United States. A 1999 study from the Institute of medicine suggests that deaths from medical errors per year ______.
a. number between 44,000 and 98,000
b. are over 44,000 but less than 55,000
c. may exceed 98,000
d. None of the above
16. Which of these people is MOST likely to seek health care?
a. Mildred is 72 years old and simply does not feel well. She refers to her symptoms as “the crud.”
b. Melvin is a 63-year-old owner of his own profitable business. He began to feel chest pains yesterday and is concerned.
c. Elmer is 68 years old, never married, and lives alone. For the past 2 years, Elmer has experienced “shortness of breath.”
d. Ida is 92 years old and feels fine. However, she is lonely and would “like to talk to someone about her health.”
17. The exemption from usual duties when sick, as identified by Segall, is LEAST applicable to which group?
a. people who are afraid of losing their jobs
b. people who love their jobs and coworkers
c. people who are hospitalized for treatment
d. both a and b
18. Joshua has been told by friends that he does not look well. He feels flushed and decides to take his temperature to determine if he has a fever. His actions would be defined as ______.
a. self-defeating behavior
b. disease behavior
c. illness behavior
d. socialized behavior
19. The behavioral model of adherence:
a. advocates punishment of noncompliant behaviors
b. emphasizes reinforcement of adherent behaviors
c. incorporates the concept of subjective norms
d. None of the above.
20. The model or theory that includes four beliefs—perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers—to predict health-related behavior is the ______.
a. self-efficacy theory
b. health belief model
c. health action process approach
d. theory of planned behavior
21. In the volitional phase of the health action process approach model, _______ is a crucial component of whether behavior change will be maintained over time.
a. outcome expectation
c. risk perception
22. What have researchers found about self-efficacy theory relative to health behaviors?
a. it is not predictive of adherence or medical results
b. it is not related to reducing the severity of disease
c. it is not included in most health behavior models
d. it is not inclusive of other factors for motivation
23. With regard to age, studies show that nonadherence ________.
a. increases as the age of the patients increase b. decreases as the age of the patients decrease c. is related to different patient ages on a curve d. does not have any relationship to patient age
24. In studies with patients recovering from heart problems and patients with diabetes, _______ was a better determinant of adherence than _______.
a. practical support; emotional support
b. emotional support; invisible support
c. emotional support; practical support
d. practical support; invisible support
25. Bandura’s notion of reciprocal determinism assumes that human conduct results from an interaction of behavior, person factors (such as cognition), and _______.
a. the environment
b. outcome expectancies
c. subjective norms
d. intention to act
Unit 2 Study Guide
1. According to the text, which of the following is a difference between emotional disclosure and
a. emotional expression requires some self-reflection
b. emotional disclosure may be venting or outbursts
c. emotional disclosure requires the use of language
d. emotional expression is healthy and reduces stress
2. Which of the following are two subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system?
a. afferents and efferents
b. central and peripheral nervous systems
c. the brain and the spinal cord
d. sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
3. Noise is considered a type of pollution because ______.
a. one person’s music is another person’s noise
b. it is annoying
c. it is, by its nature, a loud stimulus
d. it can be a noxious, unwanted stimulus
4. The class of chemicals containing epinephrine and norepinephrine is called ______.
5. Meichenbaum’s stress inoculation training program is a type of ______.
a. emotional disclosure therapy
b. cognitive behavioral therapy
c. progressive relaxation training
d. mindfulness meditation training
6. Several methods have been used to measure stress, but the approach taken by most health psychologists is to use ______.
a. self-report scales
b. performance tests
c. physiological measures
d. estimates by close associates
7. What did a longitudinal study by Stewart, Janicki, and Kamarck (2006) find related to increased blood pressure from noise and other situational stimuli?
a. their findings confirmed those in the literature that blood pressure normalizes once the stressor stops
b. they found that the duration to normalize blood pressure predicts hypertension over a three-year time
c. their findings refuted those in the literature that blood pressure normalizes once the stressor is stopped
d. they found that the duration to normalize blood pressure is longer in people with existing hypertension
8. ________ children show the greatest asthma symptoms following an acute stress task.
c. Low socioeconomic status
d. High socioeconomic status
9. Leukocytes are ______.
a. white blood cells
b. red blood cells
10. By which of the following way does the body respond to invading foreign substances?
a. a general immune response
b. a specific immune response
c. none of the above
d. Either a general immune response or a specific immune response; sometimes both.
11. There is evidence that stress contributes to the development of __________.
a. depressive symptoms
b. anxiety symptoms
c. both anxiety and depressive symptoms
d. neither anxiety nor depressive symptoms
12. In order for stress to cause illness, stress must affect physiological processes that produce illness. This would most likely occur in the _________ system.
a. immune b. nervous c. endocrine d. digestive
13. Sensory input information passes through what brain structure?
a. the parietal lobe of the cerebral cortex
b. the pons
c. the cerebellum
d. the thalamus
14. The theory of pain proposed by Melzack and Wall has been called the _____ theory.
a. gate control
b. sensory decision
15. Isaiah suffers from chronic pain and is considering a mindfulness-based intervention to help manage it. Based on research findings, what should he consider?
a. mindfulness is less expensive but also less effective than drugs
b. mindfulness helps pain by avoiding catastrophizing judgments
c. mindfulness is less effective than cognitive-behavioral therapy
d. mindfulness can reduce perceived pain, but not improve mood
16. What is TRUE about opiate drugs?
a. they are effective analgesics
b. they produce dependence
c. they produce tolerance
d. all of the above
17. ______ produced by the immune system increase pain sensitivity, along with increasing fatigue and sickness.
a. Proinflammatory cytokines
d. both a and b
18. One variation of cognitive behavioral therapy encourages participants to _____ their pain and focus their attention on valued activities.
d. commit to
19. Ayurvedic medicine originated in ______.
c. Europe in the 19th century
20. Research has confirmed that mindfulness meditation is helpful in reducing people’s _______.
b. stress-related problems
d. all of the above
21. A person who uses some form of CAM is likely to ______.
a. be an immigrant to the United States
b. have a lower level of socioeconomic status
c. subscribe to the biomedical view of health and illness
d. accept the biopsychosocial view of health and illness
22. Martha participates in _______, a type of meditation where she sits and repeats a sound over and over.
a. mindfulness meditation
b. transcendental meditation
c. guided imagery
23. _______ has been shown to be effective in treating insomnia.
b. Biofeedback c. Yoga
24. In traditional Chinese medicine, channels in the body that connect body parts to one another and to the universe are called ______.
25. One of the goals of treatment in traditional Chinese medicine is to ______.
a. reduce the amount of qi that flows through the body
b. increase the amount of qi that flows through the body
c. bring yin and yang into balance
d. increase yin forces and decrease yang forces
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