Write a short answer for each question in your own words. Answers should be single-spaced and take up no more than one page each. All answers must be your own original work. Use the handouts given for this assignment, please don’t cut and paste sentences from the handouts, even if you change the word, indeed this practice is plagiarism. Any material that comes from any source other than you should be put inside quotation marks and cited..
1. A. Describe, in your own words, the Wu and Zhang facial classification experiment. Explain, in your own words, the criticisms of the Wu and Zhang experiment (and of the “physiognomic” conclusions some may be inclined to draw from it) contained in the article “Physiognomy’s New Clothes.” (Week 5)
B. Describe what implicit bias is and how it can be experimentally measured. What is WEAT, and what did Caliskan et al. discover using it? What is the significance of their discovery? Answer in your own words. (Week 4)
2. A. Explain, in your own words, ProPublica’s criticism of the COMPAS risk assess- ment scoring algorithm. (Week 6)
B. What does it mean to say that a risk assessment scoring algorithm is calibrated? What does it mean to say that a risk assessment scoring algorithm exhibits false- positive rate equality? Explain, in your own words, why it is not possible to design a risk assessment scoring algorithm which both is calibrated and exhibits false- positive rate equality if different groups have different base rates of reoffending. (Week 6)
3. A. Explain the ethical challenge Allen believes Big Data poses if individuals have a moral obligation to protect their own privacy. Describe, in your own words, her proposed solution to this challenge. (Week 8)
B. Solove describes a number of structural problems for the privacy self-management framework. Explain, in your own words, three of these problems. (Week 8)
C. Explain, in your own words, why philosophers have thought that privacy is necessary for individuals’ autonomy and room to grow. Be sure to explain the difference between extrinsic loss of freedom and intrinsic loss of freedom. To what extent is the claim that privacy is necessary for these goods plausible, and why? (Week 8)
4. A. Describe Liu et al.’s experiment regarding Facebook privacy settings, being sure to explain both its experimental design and its results. In your opinion, do Liu et al.’s results show that individuals are unable to manage their own privacy? Why or why not? (Week 9)
B. Acquisti et al. argue that individuals’ privacy behavior is context-dependent. What do they mean by ‘context-dependent’? Describe two of their examples of the context- dependence of privacy behavior. (Week 10)
5. A. Why does Pettit believe it is important that we be able to hold group agents responsible for their actions? Does Pettit maintain that if a group agent is responsible for a bad outcome, this must be because some individual members of the group are personally responsible for that bad outcome? Why or why not? (Week 11)
B. Pettit argues that three conditions must be satisfied for an entity to be the sort of thing that can be held responsible. What are these three conditions? Explain the conditions in your own words; do not merely name them. (Week 11)
C. Pettit draws an analogy between the action of a group and the shattering of a heated bottle. Describe the analogy in your own words and explain how it is related to Pettit’s discussion of group action. What objection to the idea that group agents can be held responsible for their actions is the analogy meant to address? (Week 11)
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