stress management in nurses working in emergency room in cover-19 pandemic



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Stress Management in Nurses working in Emergency Room in COVID-19 Pandemic



Significance of the Practice Problem


Stress among emergency and healthcare workers has to be avoided at all costs due to its far-reaching consequences. It negatively impacts their ability to complete assigned tasks due to low concentration, poor decision-making, and anxiety. This contributes to burnouts and absenteeism that lower the quality of Covid-19 patients’ services, hence increased admission time or even fatality to the patients. Due to escalated admission time, the cost of health care provision rises up and sometimes leaves the patient’s family in a worse economic condition (Labrague et al., 2018). Stress can cause hypertension, heart diseases, ulcers, and other physical ailments to the stressed health worker.

The new approach to managing stress among the health workers would be facilitating physical activities and productive use of leadership. Leadership can help reduce stress among the group mentioned above by avoiding overworking the groups mentioned above to give them time for physical activities. Physical activities among health workers, such as walking, dancing, pressing up, and any other physical fitness form, nourish health workers’ bodies. More so, it improves an individual mood and helps them relax, hence aiding them to lower mild depression and anxiety. This can go a long way in enhancing a personal sleep that is often distracted by stress, anxiety, and depression. Reduced healthcare worker stress instances mean that they can concentrate on their duties, offering highly specialized individual services to the patient, hence helping them recover soon. This ensures the patient family does not overspend on the patients’ life since admission time is significantly reduced, allowing them to avoid economic insolvency. It also raises the reputation of health care organizations.

However, the most significant ethical consideration in the above approach is the patient’s autonomy and informant consent of the patient’s treatment. Sometimes, a drug used to treat coronavirus has known side effects that the patient may not be informed about due to healthcare worker stress. Such workers may often forget to tell the patient of these side effects due to psychological repercussions (Galbraith et al., 2020). Another ethical implication may arise from the practical point of view whereby the health worker may be expected to benefit more people by treating patients and preceding their physical activities. The maxim emphasizes bringing happiness to the maximum number of people even though few have to be hurt. In this context, the few hurt individuals are the healthcare workers and emergency response individuals.




Research Question


What are the tools available to address the increasing stress levels in emergency nurses managing COVID-19 patients and avoid short-term complications?


· To identify, through the literature review, the available tools to address the increasing stress levels in emergency nursing managing COVID-19 patients.

· To analyze the possible short-term complications produced by the effect of high levels of stress levels in emergency nurses managing COVID-19

· To demonstrate the importance of developing new tools to manage high levels of stress in this group of workers, to avoid short-term complications.



Theoretical Framework


The Florence Nightingale environmental theory is explained as nursing, which demonstrates the act of using the patient to help him or her in their recovery. This theory supported my project because of the factors such as effective drainage, fresh air, cleanliness or sanitation, pure water, light or direct sunlight. This theory relates to my project objectives as it focuses on factors that have great significance during the Nightingale time (Akbar, 2017). Florence Nightingale’s theory also relates to my project because it talks about the environment that people get during COVID-19 interactions and identifies the needs by assessment, evaluates the patient’s effects, and documentation of time of food intake used to be measured. According to my project objectives, health and diseases are some of the patterns that can be seen as an adaptive change. The health is implied to mean integrity as well as unity with the successful adaptation.

This theory relates to my project because it promotes health during the patients’ COVID-19 interactions. Also, Johnson’s behaviour system model has been proposed to foster effective behavioral functioning in the patient to prevent illness. This model stated that nursing was anxious with the man as combined entirely, and this is specific data that my project relates to and is the need of the people. This model state that there is organization, interdependency, interaction, and integration of the elements and parts of the behaviors that make up the system (Arnetz and Goetz, 2020).


Synthesis of the Literature



Akhbar (2017) determined that COVID-19 pandemic has obtainable challenges to the healthcare system all around the world. The spread of the disease caught many healthcare systems and provided intensive care unit beds to the patients who contracted COVID-19. The mixture of emotional and physical strain on the worried nursing staff has been seen in this article. Several recent editorials revealed that several factors made nurses stressed, which could contribute to the mental health issues. These involve the terror of contagion for the individual and treasured ones, the fear of unknown disease, and the high rates of fatality and disease transmission.

Arnetz and Goetz (2020) revealed some of the different possessions of job stress on the nurses and demonstrated the position of managing the procedure during COVID-19 contraction. The study has identified experiences of nurses about revealing the coping procedure of the nurses in case of identifying work-related stress. The outcomes in this study identify the analysis which led to the four axial concepts such as environmental factors, situational coping, sensation stress at work, and consequence of individual factors while coping with the job stress at the same time. The original psychosocial and basic procedure of nurses to manage with the job stress revealed the coping procedure that nurses adopt and can aid in taking the measures which ease up the costs of managing the attitude of nurses.


Mojca DOBNIKI (2018), COVID-19 being one of the emergencies that pooped up when nurses were not well prepared, subjected the nurses to stress because health workers who were involved in the treatment and caring of the covid-19 patients were exposed to a large degree of stress that could lead to secondary trauma if not well handled. This introduced absence of enough protocols needed for the nurses to follow due to the exceptional nature of the disease and the rate of spread, as well as the seriousness that such patient’s health condition and death rate. The extreme conditions in which the nurses had work indicate that emergency workers who intervene during emergencies have been exposed to related risk infections. Hence, nurses need psychological support and dedicated training, and valid policies to prevent stress in the psychological health field.

Sarita Ahwal (2016) asserts that well formulated strategies and organized shifts will help reduce workloads among nurses. Strategies need to be formulated to reorganize nurses’ work to limit the psychological stressors and help nurses offer quality help to patients, and improve their attention towards offering quality care to patients. This will enable them to handle patients as per their ability and improve their efficiency in their work. There is a need for periodic health assessments conducted by hospital administrators to assess their mental and physical health. This will help administrators to develop effective behaviors and manage stress in their work, even in emergencies similar to COVID-19. Self–controlling and positive reappraisal are necessary tools that will help nurses alleviate stress in emergencies like COVID-19.

JEF ADRIAENSSENS and MAES (2013) claims that emergency departments, including ICU, among others, need to be screened regularly. This should be done on organizational and in jobs to allow the hospital management to identify factors that contribute to stress-related issues in nurses working in those sensitive areas. If identified, the factors need to be alleviated by forming swift policies that will allow them to limit the stress they encounter. Nurses need to be screened regularly to identify their skills to allow them to be allocated areas of work based on their skills and preferences. This will improve their efficiency and limit accidents a work as well as stress. Moreover, adequate work measures need to be put in place, reward nurses who perform incredibly, offer promotions to those who deserve and increase their pay at one particular time. This will motivate the nurses and make them dedicated to performing their work.

Louisa J ABRAHAM and CRILLY (2018) contends that there is a need for environmental analysis in job demands, social support, and job control. Emergency nurses’ posts need to be filled as soon as possible to ascertain that enough workload and priority to increase efficiency and anticipate peak load. The hospital management should invest in its human capital to ensure there is no shortage of emergency nurses. This will assist in curbing future pandemics similar to COVID-19. Thus, supervisors need to be trained in emergency nurses’ personal experiences and essential organizational characteristics to address the increasing level of stress among nurses working in e emergency unit precisely.



Format and Guidelines: The student will create a PowerPoint Presentation from the research. The Presentation should have a minimum of 12 slides or more, including Title Page, Introduction, Conclusion, and References.



Title Page: Topic Name, Student Name
Introduction: Provide a brief synopsis of the meaning (not a description) of the topic you choose, in your own words
Content Body: Progress your theme, provide Material, illustrations and Diagram to explain, describe and clarify the Topic you choose.
Conclusion: Briefly summarize your thoughts & conclusion to your critique of the articles and Chapters you read.
References: The student must use other textbooks, research papers, and articles as references (minimum 3).

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