I am required to write about “the digital economy’ and ‘environmental law and sustainable development.’
Demonstrate clear points in each paragraph and have a clear critical discussion of these problems in light of competing ideologies;
framing environmental law in north south context
1.Regulating the digital economy through policies that allow environmental protection and economic growth
2.Please use policy guides that link (digital) economic matters and the environment
3.Tackle economic instruments used to protect environment and that can be used to contribute further to regulation for digital economy multinationals in the global south with examples in countries like Kenya east Africa, South Africa Mauritius and west Africa.
(The introduction of economic instruments, such as emissions trading and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol, was a game changer in the 1990s. This was the first time the private sector was called upon to contribute so directly to the implementation of an international environmental agreement. It was, and remains, controversial because it brings the language of market mechanisms and privatisation into the centre of a regime concerned with global public resources (air, the atmosphere). Controversies notwithstanding, carbon trading that started as a footnote in the mid-1990s has become an integral and central part of the climate change regime.)
4.Taxing digital economy for environmental issues.PLEASE FOCUS ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND ENVIORNMENT ASPECTS
5.Green taxing and environmental sustainability
l consider the scope of various World Trade Organisation (WTO) agreements, including the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (SCM) and Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), the GATT “General Exceptions”, review examples of recent trade disputes related to renewable energy technologies, and consider the role of regional agreements and bilateral investment treaties in supporting mitigation efforts and protecting investments.
6.Cases for digital multinationals and taxation tied together.
Tie it to a string conclusion with recommended way forward
Other effective ways of dealing with digital economy outside of taxation. Strong regulations that support nations with this.
7.Human rights framework to support the regulation of digital and hosted multinational actives
(-The climate change regime does not include a specific human rights dimension. Yet, human rights considerations abound in climate change. For the past decade, there has been a rapid rise in activity in various forums to consider the links between climate change and human rights. There are, as yet, no binding climate change instruments that specifically make the link but a host of issues can be considered under existing legal frameworks. This first includes consideration of the impacts of ongoing climate change on the realisation of existing human rights, something which is not conceptually novel but needs to be highlighted given the magnitude of climate change related harm. This requires making a link between ‘vulnerability’, a concept well entrenched in climate change discourses and human rights. Secondly, a host of issues arise in terms of determining whether there are specific human rights linked to climate change. The starting point is the widely recognised (at the national level) right to a clean environment. This needs to be further examined in the context of the resistance to its recognition at the international level and the need to consider the broader implications of the inclusion of climate change under a right to environment that potentially further broaden its already wide scope.)
8. State responsibility ,liability and climate related Litigation that African (states can use to regulate multinationals
focus on state responsibility and civil liability for climate change damages. State responsibility is a basic principle of international law that has been relatively secondary in the context of climate change because states have been weary of setting precedents. It is nevertheless an important tool and one that may acquire further importance in the future given the kind of threats to sovereignty that climate change may cause. The limited use of state responsibility has led to the development of environmental civil liability regimes backed by a public international law framework in various environmental regimes. In the context of climate change, even this has been too controversial and the alternative mechanism developed is that of ‘loss and damage’. The limitations of the international responses have led to various attempts to sue states and private actors in domestic forums. This has become an important additional strategy to foster accountability.)
comprehensive analysis of the major legal problems raised by the operations of multinational enterprises (MNEs), studied in their commercial, economic and political contexts
1. Regulating MNEs: Sources, Sites, th
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