Assessment 2 – MBA 7101

Following on the two paperwork that you did for me on topic 7101, the below assignment will be the next one to be complete according to the same topic that been use :

Assessment Number

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Assessment Type (and weighting)

Report (40%)

Assessment Name

Mini Draft Literature

Assessment Submission Date

16th Aug 2020

Learning Outcomes Assessed:

Learning Outcomes


4. Synthesise and critically evaluate relevant literature underpinning a complex area of research

Draft mini Literature Review 2000 Words

Mini draft literature review: (Max 2000 words)

Review academic articles, books, and various sources related to the selected problem in assignment 1. This should preferably be within your envisaged dissertation study area. Carefully read and critically analyze the sources, and then write a critique of the available literature

A brief review of literature relevant to the research problem (this is not a full literature review rather a statement about key arguments you are already aware of and the areas of literature which you will seek to review ) with in-text citations and referencing list


A good Literature Review should tell the reader

• What we already know about your chosen topic area (historical and current context in which your research is situated)

• Definitions and relevant terminology for your research

• The characteristics of the key concepts, factors or variables

• The relationships between these key concepts, factors or variables

• Existing theories in your chosen topic area

• The inconsistencies or other shortcomings in our knowledge and understanding

• What views/issues need to be (further) tested and how your work extends this or Addresses a gap in previous work in the field

• What evidence is lacking, inconclusive, contradictory or too limited

• Why the research problem should be studied (further)

• If any existing research designs or methods seem unsatisfactory

The Literature Review provides you with supporting evidence for the practical problem which your research is addressing. It is proposed that the Literature Review is based upon the concept map and Research Proposal devised in Assignment 1.

Minimum Secondary Research Source Requirements:

Level HE7 – It is expected that the Reference List will contain fifteen to twenty sources. As a MINIMUM the Reference List should include four refereed academic journals and five academic booksANSWER




Table of Contents

Abstract 3

Definition of Terms. 4

1.0.       Introduction. 5

2.0.       Key Concepts Factors and Variables. 5

3.0.       Existing Theories. 6

3.1.       A Woman’s Place. 6

3.2.       The Glass Ceiling. 6

3.2.1.        Old Boy Networks. 7

3.2.2.        Lack of Mentors. 8

3.2.3.        Balance of Work and Family Life. 8

3.2.4.        Academic Preparation. 8

3.3.       Sex Segregation. 9

3.3.1.        Direct Discrimination. 9

3.3.2.        Undervaluing of Women’s Work. 9

3.3.3.        Segregation in the Labour Market 9

3.3.4.        Traditions and Stereotypes. 10

3.3.5.        Balancing Work and Private Life. 10

4.0.       Inconsistencies in Available Information. 10

5.0.       Future Research Recommendations. 10

6.0.       Conclusion. 11

References. 12




The world is changing every day. Women are becoming more empowered and taking up leadership positions in government, world leadership, banking and finance among many other industries. This brings the philosophical question of what happens in the hospitality industry and has been for decades. The source of this phenomenon is not just one single thing but a variety of reasons as will be established in this research. The main objectives for his report are:

  • To evaluate factors that compel the ‘glass ceiling’ effects in hospitality
  • To analyse the current structures in hospitality that enables the ‘glass ceiling’ effect.
  • To provide recommendations to women in leadership roles hotels to overcome the challenge of the ‘glass ceiling’.



Definition of Terms

Keywords: Hospitality industry, women, challenges, development, performance appraisals.

Discipline: Hospitality Administration and Management.

Acronyms:      HTC    –          Hotels, Catering and Tourism.

HR       –           Human Resources.

IHRA –           International Hotel and Restaurant Association

WTTC –           World Travel and Tourism Council.


1.0.        Introduction

Hospitality comprising hotels, catering and tourism is a large industry and constantly improving and growing. There is a promise for the industry to continue growing despite hiccups caused by the current COVID-19 pandemic. Globally, this industry boasts up to 55.5% in women participation and up to 70% on a regional level (Baum 2013). Women’s contribution in the business world has generally improved but in a hotel, one challenge that stands out aside from all the rest as identified by researchers and analysis is a concept they refer to as a ‘glass ceiling”. This refers to a condition where something has obstructed women in hotels to ascend in higher supervisory ranks and management positions. Arun (2015), in A Study on Challenges of Women in Hospitality and Tourism Industry, confirms with human resource managers that employment of women in the hotel industry is majorly restricted to housekeeping, front and back office. Women remain shunned from male-dominated leadership positions and departments like food and beverages. In the journal, the author supposes that the idea of women in hospitality is to be seen and not to be felt. In any hotel, the first person at the reception is always a woman but as you climb higher into the hierarchy, the fewer the women until there are none left.

2.0.        Key Concepts Factors and Variables

Hospitality is a coveted industry by both men and women. According to HR managers, professionals with hotel management qualifications and experience join high-end hotels with five stars and above which is because of the high pay incentives and more work prestige in comparison to other industries (Marinakou 2014). However, research indicates that even then, “employment of women in the hotel industry is still mainly restricted to front-office, back-office and housekeeping” (Arun 2015). The IHRA indicates that women have fairly good opportunities in these fields with the promise of even more opportunities in future for women in fields like food and beverages.

3.0.        Existing Theories

3.1.           A Woman’s Place

Arun (2015), in A Study on Challenges of Women in Hospitality and Tourism Industry, confirms with human resource managers that employment of women in the hotel industry is majorly restricted to housekeeping, front and back office. Women remain shunned from male-dominated leadership positions and departments like food and beverages. In the journal, the author supposes that the idea of women in hospitality is to be seen and not to be felt. In any hotel, the first person at the reception is always a woman but as you climb higher into the hierarchy, the fewer the women until there are none left. Arun supposes that this should be offensive to any woman in the industry.

Women can play a major role in the field by connecting and using strengths that come with femininity in communication, conflict management and personal skills. The author introduces the aspect of “SHE” (Spirituality, Humanistic and Existential) model in HTC directed at empowering women.

3.2.           The Glass Ceiling

Brownell (1993), in Addressing career challenges faced by women in hospitality management, examines the reason why despite boasting large numbers of women in the hospitality industry, it is also prevalent that women are leaving the same industry more than twice the rate of men. Globally, women account for less than 4% of presidents and CEOs suggesting the presence of an obstacle or ‘glass ceiling” when it comes to the hospitality industry. Whenever career women get to a certain point where the industry prohibits any further advancement in their careers, women prefer to leave the industry for another one that presents better opportunities for them. The ‘glass ceiling’ has a direct effect on middle management women in the industry with ambitions to rise higher where it may send them out of the industry altogether.

The author identifies gender-related issues like the prominent one of ‘old boy networks’ where “key decision-makers are male, the personal contact so vital to gaining career-relevant information for women” (Brownell 1993). Such s concept has been applied by men for a long time to get ahead. With a glass ceiling like that, even women role models are reduced to only a handful and women networks non-existent. In addition, the hospitality industry requires working in irregular hours and promotions demand relocation even to different regions, women with families and such careers are faced by significant quality-of-life issues while attempting to strike a balance between professional and personal lives. From a study the author identifies the following challenges to women in leadership in hotels:

3.2.1.      Old Boy Networks

Brownell narrates an occurrence wherein a hotel, there are no women managers but there are three assistant managers. In an event recently to the publishing of the research several senior leadership position men were invited for lunch in a fancy restaurant. When the General Manager was questioned on the lack of women in the meeting and why none of the assistant female managers was invited, his response was, “well, this is business” (Brownell 1993). This presents a small view of the frustrations experienced by many women to create further barriers in a selfish move for collaboration.

3.2.2.      Lack of Mentors

On the issue of mentorship, a variety of literature sources indicate a problem in lack of role models. However, even more, disappointing is the few numbers of women in leadership positions and that they are often viewed as unsupportive by other women hence the saying that “women are their enemies”. From research, many women, develop a fulfilling relationship with male mentors but are very prompt in describing a negative encounter with a female colleague, supervisor or manager.

3.2.3.      Balance of Work and Family Life

The author describes a situation he terms as ‘professional sacrifice’ where women are forced to sacrifice everything non-work related to these senior positions. This was attributed to long hours, relocations and frequent travel in the industry. Despite the changing culture enabling men to be more involved in families, it is still a long way and running the family unit still largely relies on women.

3.2.4.      Academic Preparation

Lastly, the author identifies a possible failure in the education system when female students are not prepared for the realities of the world and the industry. They come out thinking that everything is fair only to realise, sometimes late, that to keep up, they have to work twice as hard.

3.3.           Sex Segregation

Baum (2013) studies the same concept in International perspectives on women and work in hotels, catering and tourism. The author uses cultural and structural issues to expound on the topic of the ‘glass ceiling’ where he uses concepts such as wage parity, sex segregation, the role of women and career opportunities for his analysis. In some cases, there is a difference in what women earn in comparison to what men earn. Globally, women may earn only 70% for the same roles in the industry. This may stop women from wanting to get into the industry or push the ones already there away in search of better opportunities that do not segregate them for their gender. The author establishes the issues as follows:

3.3.1.      Direct Discrimination

Some women are paid less than men in the same field and for doing the same job introducing the concept of the gender pay gap due to poorly established government and industry legislations.

3.3.2.      Undervaluing of Women’s Work

Fields that have huge female numbers result in poor pay for instance in a hotel, room attendants are often female who are paid poorly in comparison to porters who are often men with the logic that physical strength is applied.

3.3.3.      Segregation in the Labour Market

The challenges in the industry are also a reflection of the facts and realities by the segregation in the labour market. A good example is in the recruitment process where women are hired as administrative assistants in a hotel or shop assistants or low and unskilled workers. On management levels, they are underrepresented in both managerial and senior positions.

3.3.4.      Traditions and Stereotypes

Segregation can be directly traced to poor traditions and stereotypes. The effect of this can hardly be underestimated, it affects the career choices for girls while still young and carries along to how they perceive themselves as adults.

3.3.5.      Balancing Work and Private Life

As already observed, women face greater difficulties in sustaining a professional career in a field that already sets them aside.

4.0.        Inconsistencies in Available Information

While the literature reviewed focuses in what women have done and failed to do, it greatly fails to offer the solution in terms of what men should do on their part to ensure gender inclusivity and women empowerment in the field. More is bound to be achieved in an all hands on deck situation rather than leaving women to solve it themselves. In a world that is changing and more men are staying home to bring up families and more women providing to the family unit, a combination of both should be examined for further application.

5.0.        Future Research Recommendations

From the information established it is clear the female students are the key stakeholders in the future of the industry that will be greatly affected by the nature and quality of the association they engage in with the job. The job of hospitality training and education for these female students should be to prepare them to deal effectively with challenges that have persisted in the industry for so long. A broad-based approach will be paramount where new competencies and understanding will be instilled has to be executed now. Maxwell (1997) classifies the future of running a hotel in the 21st century as:

  1. Teamwork
  2. Transformational leadership.

The two will have to capitalise greatly on non-traditional management styles often associated with more feminine approaches to management. The most significant characteristic will include, collaboration, interpersonal sensitivity, sharing, listening and empowerment. Building and sustaining high performance, gender-inclusive teams will be one of the essential tasks of management in the new age of hospitality management.

6.0.        Conclusion

There are challenges faced by women in leadership roles in hotels everywhere. An obstruction prevents women from gaining high positions in hotels, a situation that has been there for centuries. The source of this phenomenon is not just one single thing but a variety of reasons as indicated by the three authors, Baum (2013), Brownell (1993) and Arun (2015). While in other industries including political offices women continue to gain more and more, the situation may not change in the hospitality industry which means the industry requires a reform. There is huge potential for anyone both male and female in the hospitality industry but for true success all stakeholders including women and men in management, students, government legislatures among others must come together with an idea to reform the industry and make it more acceptable to women. Similarly, as identified, this is not at all an all-female job but a male one as well where they must offer support and recommendations to empower the neglected gender in the industry.



Arun, K. and Nagar, K., 2015. A study on Challenges of Women in Hospitality and Tourism Industry.

Baum, T., 2013. International perspectives on women and work in hotels, catering and tourism.

Brownell, J., 1993. Addressing career challenges faced by women in hospitality management. Hospitality & Tourism Educator, 5(4), pp.11-15.

Knutson, B.J. and Schmidgall, R.S., 1999. Dimensions of the glass ceiling in the hospitality industry. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly40(6), pp.64-75.

Marinakou, E., 2014. Women in Hotel Management and Leadership: Diamond or Glass?. Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Management2(1), pp.18-25.

Maxwell, G.A., 1997. Hotel general management: views from above the glass ceiling. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.

Woods, R.H. and Viehland, D., 2000. Women in hotel management: gradual progress, uncertain prospects. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly41(5), pp.51-54.


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