This assignment has two goals: 1) have students, via research, increase their understanding of impacts of information
technology on current world issues, and 2) learn to correctly use the tools and techniques within Word to format a research
paper, including use of available References and citation tools. These skills will be valuable throughout a student’s
The paper will require a title page, NO abstract, three to five full pages of content with incorporation of a minimum of 3
external resources from credible sources and a Works Cited/References page. Wikipedia and similar general information
sites, blogs or discussion groups are not considered creditable sources for a research project. No more than 10% of the
paper may be in the form of a direct citation from an external source. Choose your topic from the list of topics that follow
these organization steps.
Open Word and save a blank document with the following name:
“Student’s LastNameFirstInitial Research Paper”
The paper should be organized in the following way:
1. Title page:
a. Center in the middle of the page (horizontally and vertically) the title (subject) of the paper and below that
2. Body of the paper:
a. Use 12-point Arial font
b. Set the margins at 1”
c. Entire paper should be double-spaced
d. Length – 3-5 full pages, not counting the title page or the References page.
e. Include a minimum of 3 APA-formatted citations and related References page. Every reference must be cited
at least once, and every citation have an entry in the References list. If you are not familiar with APA format,
it is recommended that you use the References feature in Word for your citations and Reference List or refer
to the “Citing and Writing” option under the Resources/Library/Get Help area in the LEO classroom. It is
important to review the final format for APA-style correctness even if generated by Word.
f. Include at least two (2) informational footnotes. Footnotes are not used to list a reference! Footnotes contain
information about the topic to which the footnote has been attached.
g. Place the references on a separate page following the body of the paper. Note: Use a hard return (CTRL
Enter) after the end of your paper body and the start of the References page.
3. Organization of the content of the paper:
Include the following sections in the paper (include, in bold, the headings identified here):
a. Introduction – Identify the issue or idea. Explain why the topic was selected and what you are trying to
achieve (what is your end goal). The introduction should not be more than half a page; details will be
discussed in the follow-on areas.
b. Areas of interest, activity or issue – Define the issue or idea in greater detail. Define the specific problem
or problems or new idea. Identify other underlining or related issues as well as dependencies. Explain what
impacts will result if not addressed.
c. Research Findings – Summarize your research findings and what they contribute to the study of the issue
or idea. You must identify (cite) the sources of the research or class material related to your topic that you
include in the findings.
d. Proposed solution(s), idea(s), courses of action(s). List solutions, ideas or courses of action with an
analysis of its effectiveness (how will your suggestions affect or change the current situation). If more than
one idea is suggested, provide an analysis that covers all proposed suggestions.
e. Conclusion – Summarize the conclusions of your paper.
Topic: How has information technology impacted the use of robots in your local stores?
• All Grammar, Verb Tenses, Pronouns, Spelling, Punctuation, and Writing Competency should be without error.
• Be particularly careful about mis-matching a noun and pronoun. For example, if you say “A person does this…” then do
not use “their” or “they” when referring to that person. “Person” is singular; “their” or “they” is plural.
• Remember: there is not their, your is not you’re, its is not it’s, too is not to or two, site is not cite, and who should be
used after an individual, not that. For example, “the person WHO made the speech” not “the person THAT made the
• in the previous sentence. It is more business-like to say “In a professional paper one should not use contractions,”
rather than saying, “In a professional paper you don’t use contractions.”
• In a professional paper one does not use contractions (doesn’t, don’t, etc.) and one
does not use the personal I, you or your. Use the impersonal as in the previous
sentence. It is more business-like to say “In a professional paper one should not use
contractions,” rather than saying, “In a professional paper you don’t use contractions.”
• Remember: spell-check, then proofread. Better yet, have a friend or colleague read it before submitting it. Read it out
loud to yourself. Read it as if you are submitting it to your boss
The Impact of IT on the use of Robots
The Impact of IT on the use of Robots
Years ago, the use of robots in retail stores was unheard of and unimaginable. Over the last decade, however, robots have slowly become part of the business and organizational operation, finding their way to almost every retail store in the country. Robots have been around in retail for a while now and many people have been advocating for increased integration of technology powered by artificial intelligence and machine learning in the transformation of how retail business is conducted. Large companies such as Amazon use robots to assist in inventory management and to handle online orders and customer queries. Today, ordering coffee or a meal using a self-serve computer screen rather than speaking with a human attendant is almost the norm, showing just how the workplace and retail experience has become automated. In this paper, the use of robots in local stores and the impact of information technology on the use of robots are discussed. The various benefits and challenges associated with the use of robots will also be highlighted.
IT and the Use of Robots in Local Stores
Companies and retailers are looking for new and innovative ways to cut down costs and streamline store operations. This means that stores are looking for ways through which they can improve service delivery while minimizing operational costs. Today, robots are not only used in warehouses and stores for inventory management but also for interaction with customers. Latest technology robots are equipped with machine vision algorithms and information technology, making them capable of capturing and analyzing data, images, and video, and respond accordingly. The challenge lies in determining whether information technology has a positive impact on the use of robots for organizations and customers.
The workplace in retail stores is more automated today than it ever has been. The automation has become the way of life for stores to a point where some stores are taking some actions to make sure that the retail process does not feel robotic for customers. At Starbucks, two-way video screens have been installed and continue being improved to allow customers and the baristas to see each other and interact better when orders are being placed (Petro, 2020). This enables more human interaction as opposed to customers interacting with a one-way video screen when placing orders. Starbucks stores also provide mobile order and pay program, allowing customers to make orders through a smartphone app and swoop in to collect their order without having to wait in line. This program is run by automated robots with the help of information technology. At Walmart stores, information technology empowers scanner robots to pinpoint locations where items are out-of-stock, take images of items and send them to associates using handheld devices, and transmit data and information to unloader robots (Vincent, 2017).
Unloader robots are used at Walmart to prioritize which items will get unloaded off trucks, depending on the “out of stock” information transmitted by scanner robots. Kroger, America’s largest supermarket by revenue, has a plan to set up at least 20 automated grocery warehouses across the country where robots powered by IT and AI will help in the fulfillment of orders that are placed online (Petro, 2020). Also, the company has been testing driverless robot delivery cars to assist in faster online purchases delivery across the country. Retail companies such as Stop & Shop and Giant Food Stores use pillar-shaped robots who travel the aisles of their stores looking for spills and running price checks and communicate with attendants via information technology (Petro, 2020). Some stores and organizations are using large robotic baristas to serve people with coffee, easing the work for employees (Limbu et al., 2009).
It is no secret that cybersecurity and robotics go hand-in-hand. Computer systems are the brains that power robots. The ever-increasing threat of cybersecurity means that there is an increasing demand for more specialized and secure robots for use in organizations. Without proper IT systems, the use of robots in local stores would not be efficient or secure. Cyber hacks could result in unauthorized access to company information such as stocks, customer data, and company financials. IT personnel are involved in ensuring that cybersecurity is ensured in robotics engineering. It is through IT systems that invasion of privacy in local stores using robots is avoided. As robots continue taking over industries such as retail and manufacturing, the demand for more experienced cybersecurity personnel is bound to increase to guarantee safe use of robots.
A majority of local stores are using robots integrated with AI and IT systems to take over the mundane jobs and tasks, leaving the human employees free to do the more high-value tasks like customer service (Bogue, 2019). Rather than spending their time finding items on store shelves and cleaning up spills, employees are left to interact with customers to teach them about products, while the robots handle mundane tasks. Information technology is enabling robots used in stores to analyze and interpret information on untidy or unclean store areas and clean them, capture photos of new stock, analyze items in boxes, move items to the right places and shelves, understand and communicate with customers, and provide the necessary services to customers.
The use of robots in store operations is becoming more common as technological advancement progresses across the world. Robots improve store operations, especially in warehousing and retail outlets, ensuring quicker customer service, inventory management (Bogue, 2019), and mundane tasks such as verifying prices and cleaning dirty store areas. Information technology helps robots capture, interpret, and transmit information. IT integration with robot technology ensures that robots operate seamlessly, improving operational efficiency.
Bogue, R. (2019). Strong prospects for robots in retail. Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application.
Limbu, D. K., Tan, Y. K., Wong, C. Y., Jiang, R., Wu, H., Li, L., … & Li, H. (2009, August). Experiences with a barista robot, FusionBot. In FIRA RoboWorld Congress (pp. 140-151). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Petro, G. (2020, January 10). Robots Take Retail. https://www.forbes.com/sites/gregpetro/2020/01/10/robots-take-retail/.
Vincent, J. (2017). Walmart is using shelf-scanning robots to audit its stores. The Verge.
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